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农工商实习两年半的PHP练习生

数据库mysql 的两种连接方式以及操作

mysql基础

PHP 5 及以上版本建议使用以下方式连接 MySQL :

  • MySQLi extension ("i" 意为 improved)
  • PDO (PHP Data Objects)

我是该用 MySQLi ,还是 PDO?

如果你需要一个简短的回答,即 "你习惯哪个就用哪个"。
MySQLi 和 PDO 有它们自己的优势:
PDO 应用在 12 种不同数据库中, MySQLi 只针对 MySQL 数据库。
所以,如果你的项目需要在多种数据库中切换,建议使用 PDO ,这样你只需要修改连接字符串和部分查询语句即可。 使用 MySQLi, 如果不同数据库,你需要重新编写所有代码,包括查询。
两者都是面向对象, 但 MySQLi 还提供了 API 接口。
两者都支持预处理语句。 预处理语句可以防止 SQL 注入,对于 web 项目的安全性是非常重要的。

连接 MySQL

实例 (MySQLi - 面向对象)
<?php
$servername = "localhost";
$username = "username";
$password = "password";

// 创建连接
$conn = new mysqli($servername, $username, $password);

// 检测连接
if ($conn->connect_error) {
    die("连接失败: " . $conn->connect_error);
} 
echo "连接成功";
?>
实例 (MySQLi - 面向过程)
<?php
$servername = "localhost";
$username = "username";
$password = "password";

// 创建连接
$conn = mysqli_connect($servername, $username, $password);

// 检测连接
if (!$conn) {
    die("Connection failed: " . mysqli_connect_error());
}
echo "连接成功";
?>
实例 (PDO)
<?php
$servername = "localhost";
$username = "username";
$password = "password";

try {
    $conn = new PDO("mysql:host=$servername;", $username, $password);
    echo "连接成功"; 
}
catch(PDOException $e)
{
    echo $e->getMessage();
}
?>

关闭连接

实例 (MySQLi - 面向对象)
$conn->close();
实例 (MySQLi - 面向过程)
mysqli_close($conn);
实例 (PDO)
$conn = null;

对数据库进行操作

实例 (MySQLi - 面向对象)
<?php
$servername = "localhost";
$username = "username";
$password = "password";
$dbname = "myDB";

// 创建连接
$conn = new mysqli($servername, $username, $password, $dbname);
// 检测连接
if ($conn->connect_error) {
    die("连接失败: " . $conn->connect_error);
} 

$sql = "INSERT INTO MyGuests (firstname, lastname, email)
VALUES ('John', 'Doe', 'john@example.com')";

if ($conn->query($sql) === TRUE) {
    echo "新记录插入成功";
} else {
    echo "Error: " . $sql . "<br>" . $conn->error;
}

$conn->close();
?>
实例 (MySQLi - 面向过程)
<?php
$servername = "localhost";
$username = "username";
$password = "password";
$dbname = "myDB";

// 创建连接
$conn = mysqli_connect($servername, $username, $password, $dbname);
// 检测连接
if (!$conn) {
    die("Connection failed: " . mysqli_connect_error());
}

$sql = "INSERT INTO MyGuests (firstname, lastname, email)
VALUES ('John', 'Doe', 'john@example.com')";

if (mysqli_query($conn, $sql)) {
    echo "新记录插入成功";
} else {
    echo "Error: " . $sql . "<br>" . mysqli_error($conn);
}

mysqli_close($conn);
?>
实例 (PDO)
<?php
$servername = "localhost";
$username = "username";
$password = "password";
$dbname = "myDBPDO";

try {
    $conn = new PDO("mysql:host=$servername;dbname=$dbname", $username, $password);
    // 设置 PDO 错误模式,用于抛出异常
    $conn->setAttribute(PDO::ATTR_ERRMODE, PDO::ERRMODE_EXCEPTION);
    $sql = "INSERT INTO MyGuests (firstname, lastname, email)
    VALUES ('John', 'Doe', 'john@example.com')";
    // 使用 exec() ,没有结果返回 
    $conn->exec($sql);
    echo "新记录插入成功";
}
catch(PDOException $e)
{
    echo $sql . "<br>" . $e->getMessage();
}

$conn = null;
?>

执行多条sql语句

实例 (MySQLi - 面向对象)

<?php
$servername = "localhost";
$username = "username";
$password = "password";
$dbname = "myDB";

// 创建链接
$conn = new mysqli($servername, $username, $password, $dbname);
// 检查链接
if ($conn->connect_error) {
    die("连接失败: " . $conn->connect_error);
} 

$sql = "INSERT INTO MyGuests (firstname, lastname, email)
VALUES ('John', 'Doe', 'john@example.com');";
$sql .= "INSERT INTO MyGuests (firstname, lastname, email)
VALUES ('Mary', 'Moe', 'mary@example.com');";
$sql .= "INSERT INTO MyGuests (firstname, lastname, email)
VALUES ('Julie', 'Dooley', 'julie@example.com')";

if ($conn->multi_query($sql) === TRUE) {
    echo "新记录插入成功";
} else {
    echo "Error: " . $sql . "<br>" . $conn->error;
}

$conn->close();
?>
实例 (MySQLi - 面向过程)
<?php
$servername = "localhost";
$username = "username";
$password = "password";
$dbname = "myDB";

// 创建链接
$conn = mysqli_connect($servername, $username, $password, $dbname);
// 检查链接
if (!$conn) {
    die("连接失败: " . mysqli_connect_error());
}

$sql = "INSERT INTO MyGuests (firstname, lastname, email)
VALUES ('John', 'Doe', 'john@example.com');";
$sql .= "INSERT INTO MyGuests (firstname, lastname, email)
VALUES ('Mary', 'Moe', 'mary@example.com');";
$sql .= "INSERT INTO MyGuests (firstname, lastname, email)
VALUES ('Julie', 'Dooley', 'julie@example.com')";

if (mysqli_multi_query($conn, $sql)) {
    echo "新记录插入成功";
} else {
    echo "Error: " . $sql . "<br>" . mysqli_error($conn);
}

mysqli_close($conn);
?>
实例 (PDO) 事务操作
<?php
$servername = "localhost";
$username = "username";
$password = "password";
$dbname = "myDBPDO";

try {
    $conn = new PDO("mysql:host=$servername;dbname=$dbname", $username, $password);
    // set the PDO error mode to exception
    $conn->setAttribute(PDO::ATTR_ERRMODE, PDO::ERRMODE_EXCEPTION);

    // 开始事务
    $conn->beginTransaction();
    // SQL 语句
    $conn->exec("INSERT INTO MyGuests (firstname, lastname, email) 
    VALUES ('John', 'Doe', 'john@example.com')");
    $conn->exec("INSERT INTO MyGuests (firstname, lastname, email) 
    VALUES ('Mary', 'Moe', 'mary@example.com')");
    $conn->exec("INSERT INTO MyGuests (firstname, lastname, email) 
    VALUES ('Julie', 'Dooley', 'julie@example.com')");

    // 提交事务
    $conn->commit();
    echo "新记录插入成功";
}
catch(PDOException $e)
{
    // 如果执行失败回滚
    $conn->rollback();
    echo $sql . "<br>" . $e->getMessage();
}

$conn = null;
?>

数据查询

实例 (MySQLi - 面向对象)
<?php
$servername = "localhost";
$username = "username";
$password = "password";
$dbname = "myDB";

// 创建连接
$conn = new mysqli($servername, $username, $password, $dbname);
// Check connection
if ($conn->connect_error) {
    die("连接失败: " . $conn->connect_error);
} 

$sql = "SELECT id, firstname, lastname FROM MyGuests";
$result = $conn->query($sql);

if ($result->num_rows > 0) {
    // 输出数据
    while($row = $result->fetch_assoc()) {
        echo "id: " . $row["id"]. " - Name: " . $row["firstname"]. " " . $row["lastname"]. "<br>";
    }
} else {
    echo "0 结果";
}
$conn->close();
?>
实例 (MySQLi - 面向过程)
<?php
$servername = "localhost";
$username = "username";
$password = "password";
$dbname = "myDB";

// 创建连接
$conn = mysqli_connect($servername, $username, $password, $dbname);
// Check connection
if (!$conn) {
    die("连接失败: " . mysqli_connect_error());
}

$sql = "SELECT id, firstname, lastname FROM MyGuests";
$result = mysqli_query($conn, $sql);

if (mysqli_num_rows($result) > 0) {
    // 输出数据
    while($row = mysqli_fetch_assoc($result)) {
        echo "id: " . $row["id"]. " - Name: " . $row["firstname"]. " " . $row["lastname"]. "<br>";
    }
} else {
    echo "0 结果";
}

mysqli_close($conn);
?>
使用 PDO (+ 预处理)
<?php
echo "<table style='border: solid 1px black;'>";
echo "<tr><th>Id</th><th>Firstname</th><th>Lastname</th></tr>";

class TableRows extends RecursiveIteratorIterator {
    function __construct($it) { 
        parent::__construct($it, self::LEAVES_ONLY); 
    }

    function current() {
        return "<td style='width:150px;border:1px solid black;'>" . parent::current(). "</td>";
    }

    function beginChildren() { 
        echo "<tr>"; 
    } 

    function endChildren() { 
        echo "</tr>" . "\n";
    } 
} 

$servername = "localhost";
$username = "username";
$password = "password";
$dbname = "myDBPDO";

try {
    $conn = new PDO("mysql:host=$servername;dbname=$dbname", $username, $password);
    $conn->setAttribute(PDO::ATTR_ERRMODE, PDO::ERRMODE_EXCEPTION);
    $stmt = $conn->prepare("SELECT id, firstname, lastname FROM MyGuests"); 
    $stmt->execute();

    // 设置结果集为关联数组
    $result = $stmt->setFetchMode(PDO::FETCH_ASSOC); 
    foreach(new TableRows(new RecursiveArrayIterator($stmt->fetchAll())) as $k=>$v) { 
        echo $v;
    }
}
catch(PDOException $e) {
    echo "Error: " . $e->getMessage();
}
$conn = null;
echo "</table>";
?>

遇到错误

在学习 PDO 创建数据表的时候 , 我遇到这个报错。

SQLSTATE[3D000]: Invalid catalog name: 1046 No database selected

最后发现问题在这里:

$conn = new PDO("mysql:host = $servername;dbname = $dbname",$username,$password);

因为我写代码的习惯是" = "两边都加上空格 , 但是在这里 dbname = $dbname 的等号两边却不可以存在空格所以正确的写法应该是 dbname=$dbname:

$conn = new PDO("mysql:host = $servername;dbname=$dbname",$username,$password);
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